Autumn 2001

The Euro will prompt further monetary reform by James Robertson

The European Commission recognises that a single monetary policy for the Eurozone will widen the gap between rich and poor areas and worsen the problems of “economic crisis regions”. It aims to correct this by financial transfers to those regions — confirming that a single currency must necessarily involve higher levels of centralised public expenditure and taxation, and thus a centralisation of economic and political power.

Ireland's strategic choice in the EU by Paul Gillespie

Ireland's debate can throw light on the more general picture of how the EU should develop, since it concerns issues such as political accountability and destination that animate political elites and electorates throughout the member-states. How it is resolved will also concern them directly, in that the Nice Treaty to enable EU enlargement cannot legally survive another referendum rejection here.


Who owns private industry, and what could we do with it? by Ben Rudder

It is a curiously little-known fact that the world's largest companies are actually "owned" by the collective funds of millions of small savers, the vast majority of whom save about £3000 per annum. The recent Myners Report in the UK states that 52 per cent of the Stock Market is held by UK-based Pension Funds and Life Assurance firms. If one adds overseas savers' investments, the institutional shareholding in UK quoted companies rises to more than 60 per cent. A decisive and controlling share. But if small savers "own" global capitalism, they are barely aware of the potential for change this fact implies.

Finnish Photography: Dominant visual art by Craig Burnett

Finnish photography has developed over the past ten years into the country's dominant visual art, and, according to Pirkko Siitari, chief curator at the Finnish Museum of Photography, Finland boasts one of the best systems of photographic education in the world.


Finland, the "Russian question" and socialism by Hannu Reime

There is, however, one significant question where most of the contributors to this book, as well as people in general, seem to agree. This is the view that the Soviet Union represented socialism, not only socialism in general but socialism par excellence, and that its collapse also meant the collapse of all efforts to build a better society. One seeks in vain any challenge to this widespread but ultimately erroneous view.

Our own feeling of safety collapsed with the Twin Towers by Jaana Kanninen

Time has stopped. We are living in moment zero, because right now, these days, we don't know what turn events will take. Is there going to be a spiral of mad revenges, violence begetting violence? Will there be a show of force from the powerful which will make the weak even weaker? Is the world going to divide into two even more pronounced camps than before? Will the divide between South and North be even more overpowering? Or is a wall between East and West being built? For heaven's sake, we are located on the border between East and West.

Militarisation of the mind Editorial by Tapani Lausti

The world has been shaken by the terrorist attacks in the United States. Whilst mourning the innocent victims of these outrages, people are also contemplating seriously what has gone wrong in the world. In some reactions, a will can be discerned to separate real security for human beings from concepts of stability which are connected to big state and commercial interests. In this endeavour, small countries are perhaps better placed because their self-interests are more limited and don't clash as easily with an honest analysis of what security, freedom and democracy mean.


Previous Focus articles:

Contents page of Focus Summer 2001:

* NATO expansion again — not whether but how by Michael Cox

* What kind of Union for small states? by Esko Antola

* Authoritarian temptation seduces EU decision-makers by Deirdre Curtin

* An equal or a plural society? by Kenan Malik

* Sibelius in a Sandstorm by Jari Muikku

* Militarisation of Europe? Editorial by Tapani Lausti

* Tony Blair "looks forward to reading" book on Blairism

Contents page of Focus Spring 2001:

* Exploring roots of modern Finnish dance by Donald Hutera

* 'Third Way' to oblivion? by Christopher Harvie

* Europe: Something snapped last summer by Rosemary Bechler

* Waving from the Periphery by Sarah Menin

* The Death of Klinghoffer: More confusion despite good intentions by Hannu Reime

* European political soap Editorial by Tapani Lausti


Contents page of Focus Winter 2001:

* A Nice Trap by Moshé Machover

* Blairism, 700 years on by Anthony Barnett

* "No Vote Media" with an appetite for all things British by Bente Bundgaard

* Conflicting impressions of Nordic soul by James Malpas

* The art of falling in love by Ed Jones

* Let's subsidiarise Editorial by Tapani Lausti

Contents page of Focus Autumn 2000:

* Seeking national essence by Justin O'Connor

* Ferry, across... Päijänne?!? by John Richardson

* The unaesthetics of television by Markku Koski

* Just war, cruel slaughter and humanitarian bombings? by Riikka Kuusisto

* Why does Basic Income thrill the Finns, but not the Swedes? by Jan Otto Andersson

* The hollow promise of social fairness Editorial by Tapani Lausti

Contents page of Focus Summer 2000:

* Serfs and toffs and national popular culture by Kari Kallioniemi

* Polar Jazz: European jazz redefined by Chris Parker

* A brush with death by Tuomas Nevanlinna

* Third way to globalisation by Keijo Rahkonen

Contents page of Focus Spring 2000:

* The Council of the Isles: Nordic Inspirations by Simon Partridge

* Women by the side of the dying - a feminine presence in the face of death by Terhi Utriainen

* Nine routes to cities of culture in Europe by Antony Thorncroft


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